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ROYAL BOTANIC GARDEN

EDINBURGH.

VOL III.

Including Numbers XI. -XV.

1903-1908.

j

*-

GLASGOW: PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

By JAMES HEDDERWICK & SONS LTD.,

AT ''THE CITIZEN" PRESS, ST. VINCENT PLACE.

SOLD AT THE GARDEN,

And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from

OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court, Edinburgh.

[Ail rights reset ed.

Dates of the several Numbers of this Volume

Part XL, pp. 1-16 for January, 1903. Parts XII. -XIII., pp. 17-208 for November, 1904. Part XIV., pp. 209-290 for February, 1905. Part XV., pp. i-xiv, and 291-374 for March, 1908.

List of Contents to Vol. III., 1903-1908.

PAGE.

The Royal Botanic Garden

List of Staff at March, 1908 Rules and Regulations Historic Notice -

1 11

v

ix

x

Xill

Regius Keepers - Principal Gardeners from 1756 Features of the Garden. With Key Plan xi

Teaching in the Garden Enumeration of Visitors, 1889-1907 - - - xiv

List of Seeds collected in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edin- burgh, during the year 1902 ----- 1

History of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh - - 1 7

Principal Gardeners :

. . . . - x8

20

21

- - 21

49

John Williamson Malcolm M'Coig - Robert Menzies - John Mackay

George Don -------

Thomas Sommerville - - - - - - -291

William M'Nab. With Portrait - - - - 293

Title and List of Contents, Corrections, and Additions, to

Vol. III., 1 903-1 908.

«•*•

Corrections and Additions.

it

Page 17, line 19, for Macnab read McNab»

17, ,, 20, ,, Macnab ,, McNab.

18, ,, 18, ,, Macnab ,, McNab. 18, ,, 23, Macnab McNab.

18. ,, 25, ,, Macnab McNab.

19. The Testament Dative and Inventory of the goods and gear of John

Williamson in the Commissariot Record of Edinburgh of 28th February, 1781, states that he left one thousand pounds Scots (£$3 6s. 8d. sterling) in Stock of the Bank of Scotland, his widow, Margaret Ridley, being sole executor. *

20. From Kerr's Life of Wm. Smellie, Printer (2 vols., 8vo., Edin., 181 1),

page 243 of the second volume, I transcribe the following :

Tne ensuing Proposals for publishing a Flora Edinburgensis by MALCOLM McCoiG, Gardener to the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, was written by Mr. Smellie, at the desire of the author ; who, though an excellent gardener, and intimately versant in all the plants of the garden he had charge of, and a good memorial botanist, had not the advantage of a liberal education.

Proposals for publishing \ Flora Edinburgensis | Or j A Systematic Arrangement and Description of all the Plants, those of the Cryptogamia Class excepted, which grow wild within fourteen miles round Edin- burgh J . To which will be added, | Complete Catalogues of the Plants which are found on each of the islands in the Firth of Forth. | By Malcolm McCoig, | Gardener to the Royal Botanic | Garden,

Edinburgh.

Plan of the Work \ At the beginning of every class, the several Orders and Genera will be enumerated, together with the short characters which distinguish one genus from another, after the manner of Linnceus. | Under each Genus, the several species, with their trivial names and specific differences, will be comprehended. References will likewise be made to those authors who have given figures of the different species. To every species, the English name, its duration, time of flowering, its native soil, the particular places in which it is found, and a short English description will be subjoined.

Conditions | The Work will be contained in one volume, 8vo., price Five Shillings in boards, to be paid on delivery of the Book.

2. It will be put to press as soon as a competent number of subscriptions are received.'*

I am indebted to Mr. A. P. Stevenson of Dundee, who kindly directed my attention to this prospectus. The book was not published. The author, as we have seen, died after a short term of office.

1 I am indebted to the Rev. Henry Paton, M.A., for searching the records and giving me the transcript from which this and other matter given below has been obtained.

5

The Testament Dative and Inventory of the goods and gear of Malcolm

McCoig is in the Commissariot Record of Edinburgh of 25th March,

h 1789. His widow, Eleonora Whitehead, was sole executor. The

effects were "valued by Ann Gardner, auctioneer in Edinburgh,

conform to her signed estimation," which shows that women practised

as auctioneers at this date. Amongst the items in the inventory are

159 "copies of the History and Progress of Botany"1; 120 "of the

Genera Plantarum " *2 ; 109 " of the Index Herbarum Medicinalium" 3;

79 "of the Catalogus Arborum et Fruticum"4; 5 "of the Termini

Botanici"5; 12 "of Sud Gerardi"0; 2 "of the Plantarum Officin-

arum"7. These publications were all of the nature of class-books

none of any great bulk. One cannot believe that McCoig had

accumulated the publications in the numbers mentioned for his own

use, and it seems reasonable to suggest that they indicate a custom of

the time that the Head Gardener acquired them for sale to students at

a profit, or they were given to him for sale as one of his perquisites ;

on the other hand, it may be that the auctioneer, finding them in the

gardener's house, included them in the inventory, although they were

there only for distribution to students.

Page 49, line 30, for could read would.

55, ,, 7, Alexander Don, father of George Don, removed from Beechhall,

Menmuir, in 1772 or 1773 to Little Causeway, Forfar. Miss fane Taylor Ewen9 Mill Bank, Forfar, in letter, 23/7/ February, 1905.

M

I do not know what book or pamphlet is heie referred to.

11 Genera Plantarum ex editione duodecima Systematis Naturae illusti issirni Carolina Linne. In usus Academicos. Edinburgi : Typis Academicis, mdcclxxi," pp. 88, This is the first edition of the pamphlet brought out by Dr. Hope— there were subsequent editions— for the use of his students. His name is not on the title page.

3 Probably "Tirocinum botanicum Edinburgense conscriptum a Carolo Alston Edinburgi : Typis W. Sands, A. Murray, and J. Cochran, veneunt autem apud G. Hamilton and J. Balfour, mdccliix," of which Part III. of 120 pages is entitled "Index plantarum medicinalium praecipue quae studiosis demonstrantur."

4 "Catalogus Arborum et Fruticum in Horto Edinensi crescentium anno 1778 : Edinburgi apud Balfour et Smellie, mdcclxxviii," pp. 1-20. This is the earliest edition which I have seen of this catalogue by Dr. Hope, whose name does not appear.

5 "Termini Botanici in usum juventutis Academiae Edinensis. Accedunt Index Kerumque Series. Edinburgi : apud Balfour, Auld, et Smellie, Academiae Typographos, mdcclxx,' pp. i.-vi. ; 7-40. The first edition (I have later ones) of another pamphlet prepared for his students by Dr. Hope, but without his name on title page.

* I am unable to suggest an interpretation of this. Had the words been •• Cat. Gerard i " they might have referred to John Gerardis M Catalogus Arborum, fruticum ac plantarum tarn indigenarum quam exoticarum in horto Gerard i naisceritium " published in London in 1556, and we should have had an interesting indication of the scholastic use 01 Gerarde's Catalogue at the end of the 17th century. But Mr. Paton tells me the writing can be interpreted only as * Sud* or ' Lud.f Possibly, as he suggests, there is a miswriting and the word should be Cat.'

: Probably 4< Index Plantarum Officinarum," pp. 66, which formed the third part of " Index Plantarum praecipue officinalium quae in Horto Medico Edinburgensi a Carolo Alston M. et B. P. Medici nse studiosis demonstrantur. Edinburgi : apud \V. Sands, A. Brymer, A. Murray, and J. Cochran, mdcccxl." This book was the precursor of the M Tirocinum ' of which it may be regarded as the first edition. This third part with separate pagination expanded from 66 pages in 1740 to 120 in .1753. The number of copies of this old edition remaining over in 1789 would naturally be small.

6

Page 67, line 29, for 1806 read 1807. ti 67, ,, 31, 1807 1808.

71. Dr. Neill, in his essay M On Scottish Gardens and Orchards," which,

although undated, we know (see pages 100 and 177 of the essay) to have been written in 18 12, gives another description of Don's garden. It is on the same lines as those already transcribed on pages 71 and 73 of this volume, but we learn this new fact— " there is a small green- house, well stocked, however, containing nearly 1000 different species.'' The unkempt condition of the Garden seems to have impressed the writer particularly, and he depicts it in these words—" If anyone expect to find at Forfar an elegant botanical arrangement, kept in trim order, with nice gravelled walks, he will be quite disappointed. To neatness the Garden has no pretensions ; on the contrary, during the summer months, it would often require a botanical eye to discern the humble rarities of Flora, among the rank attendant weeds." The picture tells of a chaotic condition worse than one would gather from Dr. Neill's earlier descriptions (see page 72 of this volume), and that mistakes in the recognition of particular plants should happen is only what might be expected (see page 142 of this volume). I may add here that Miss Jane Taylor Ewen of Mill Bank, Forfar, has been so kind as to inform me that "Don's Garden at Dovehill is now known as Ward-bank," and that " Laird's Factory and Mr. Laird's house stand on the site of Don's Garden, with grounds laid out all round."

93, ?t end of footnote insert I.B.B.

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:

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-j^f^m*^^

2.-

c

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m

+

al

/e id le

vernalis, Linn.

■^gopodium

Podagraria, Linn.

[Notes, R.B.G., Edin., No. XI., ^.j

glutinosa, Medic.

var. rubrinervia, Hort. japonica, Sieb. et Zucc. serrulata, Willd.

List of Seeds Collected in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during the Year 1902.

The following is a list of plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from which ripened seeds have been collected during the year 1902.

obtained

The quantity of seed limited amount

The

seeds are available for exchange, but they are not for sale :

PLANTS IN THE OPEN.

Acaena

Novae -Zelandise, T. Kirk Sanguisorbae, VahL

Acer

opulifolium, obtusatum

VilL,

Aconitum

Napellus, Linn. pyrenaicum, Hort.

Actaea

spicata, Linn. var. rubra.

Adenophora

stylosa, Fuck.

Adonis

vernalis, Linn

iEgopodium

Podagraria, Linn.

var

/Ethionema

saxatile, R. Br,

iEthusa

Cynapium, Linn

Allium

carinatum, Linn. fistulosum, Linn. margaritaceum, Sibth. et Sm. Moly, Linn. neapolitanum, Cyr, odorum, Linn.

oreophilum, C. A. Mey. sativum, Linn.

Schcenoprasum, Linn. var. sibiricum. vineale, Linn.

Alnus

cordifolia, Tenore. glutinosa, Medic.

var. rubrinervia, Hort. japonica, Sieb. et Zucc. serrulata, Willd.

fNotes, R.B.G., Edin., No. XI., 1903.]

2

List of Seeds Collected during

Alstroemeria

aurantiaca, Don

Alyssum

creticum, Linn.

montanum, Linn. umbellatum, Desv

Androsace

lactiflora, Fisch.

Anemone

alpina, Linn.

rivularis, Buck.- Ham sylvestris, Li?in.

Anthericum

Liliago, Linn.

Anthriscus

sylvestris, Hoffm.

Antirrhinum

Asarina, Linn.

Aquiiegia

'chrysantha, A. Gray

Arabis

alpina, Linn.

var. anachoretica, Port.

Hook, et Am

IQ02

Scop

Arctium

Lappa, Linn

Arenaria

gracilis, Kit.

gramini folia, Schrad, juniperina, Linn. peploides, Linn.

Arnica

amplexicaulis, Nutt. montana, Linn.

Arracacia

arguta, Benth. et Hook.f.

Aster

Tripolium, Linn.

Astragalus

alopecuroides, Linn. Glyciphyllos, Linn. danicus, Linn., var. albus. xiphocarpus, Benth.

Astrantia

gracilis, Bartl.

helleborifolia, Salisb. major, Linn.

var. intermedia, neglecta, C. Koch et Bouche

Atriplex

Babingtonii, Woods.

Atropa

Belladonna, Linn.

Aubrietia

deltoidea, DC. erubescens, Griseb.

Barbarea

vulgaris, R. Br.

Berberis

angulosa, Wall.

Betula

alba, Linn

List of Seeds Collected during 1902

3

Brassica

campestris, Linn juncea, Coss.

Cephalaria

tatarica, Schrad. var. minor.

Brodiaea

Douglasii, S. Wats

Bryonia

dioica, /acq.

Bulbinella

Hookeri, Benth. et Hook. f.

Bupleurum

Candollei, Wall.

Callirhoe

digitata, Nutt

Campanula

Cervicaria, Linn. glomerata, Linn. linifolia, Scop.

mirabilis, Alboff.

persicifolia, Linn., var. alba pulla, Linn. rotundi folia, Linn.

Carbenia

benedicta, Adans

Carduus

acanthoides, Linn

Cenia

turbinata. Pers.

Centaurea

macrocephala, Pusckk. nervosa, Willd. pectinata, Linn. Rhaponticum. Linn.

Cerastium

alpinum, Linn.

tomentosum, Linn

Chaerophyllum

aromaticum, Linn aureum. Linn.

Chelidonium

majus, Linn.

var. laciniatum

Chenopodium

Bonus-Henricus, Linn.

Chrysanthemum

Leucanthemum, Linn segetum, Linn.

Cistus

laxus, Horf. monspeliensis. Linn

Clematis

Fremonti, S. Wats

Cnicus

canus, Roth. eriophorus, Roth tartaricus, Willd.

Cochlearia

glastifolia, Linn

Collinsia

bicolor, Benth.

Collomia

grandiilora, J)ottgl.

4

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

Conium

maculatum, Idnn

Cotoneaster

frigida, Wall.

Nummularia, Fisch. et Mey rotundifolia, Wall. Simonsii, Baker.

Cotyledon

Umbilicus, Linn

Crepis

sibirica, Linn.

Cytisus

biflorus, LH'erit. canescens, Hort. schipkaensis, Hort. scoparius, Link.

var. albus.

var. Andreanus.

Dahlia

Merckii, Lehm

mium

altissimum, Wall. cardinale, Hook. hybridum, Steph. Maackianum, RegeL nudicaule, Torr. et Gray. occidental^ S. Wats.

Y)\d&i\hyx§—contintied.

deltoides, Linn.

petraeus, Waldst. et Kit., var.

spiculifolius. plumarius, Linn.

pubescens, Sibth. et Sm. squarrosus, Bieb.

Digitalis

purpurea, Linn.

Dodecatheon

Meadia, Linn., var. album.

Draba

Aizoon. Wahlenb.

7 i

arabisans, Michx. aurea, Vahl. brunisefolia, Stev. cuspidata, Bieb. hirta, Linn. incana, Linn. Loiseleurii, Boiss.

Enkianthus

japonicus, Hook.f.

Epilobium

angustifolium, Linn. Dodoruei, Vill. Lamyi, Schultz. parviflorum, Schreb.

Bieb., var. turkes-

tanicum.

Erigeron

glabellus, Nntt., van mollis

Dianthus

Armeria, Linn. barbatus, Linn. aesius, Sm. ciliatus, Guss.

Erodium

Botrys, Bertol.

Eryngium

alpinum, Linn. Bourgati, Gonan.

Oliverianum, Delar.

List of Seeds Collected during

1902.

Erysimum

rupestre, DC. thyrsoideum, Boiss.

Eschscholzia

caespitosa, Benth. californica, Cham,

Euonymus

europaeus, Linn.

Fraxinus

excelsior, Linn.

Funkia

Sieboldiana, Hook.

Galega

orientalis, Lam.

Galium

saccharatum, AIL

Genista

anglica, Linn.

hispanica, Linn praecox, Hort.

sagittalis, Linn.

Gentiana

asclepiadea, Linn

Cruciata, Linn.

linearis, FroeL

Saponaria, Linn.

septemfida, Pall. tibetica, King.

Geranium

pratense, Linn. Robertianum, Linn. sanguineum, Linn.

var. lancastriensc. sylvaticum, Linn., var. album.

Gerbera

nivea, Sch. Bip

Geum

Gilia

5

Heldreichii, Hort.

hispidum, Fries. .

japonicum, Thunb.

montanum, Linn., var

aurantiacum. strictum, Ait.

dichotoma, Benth. minima, A. Gray, var

ccerulea. tricolor, Benth.

Hedysarum

microcalyx, Baker. neglectum, Ledeb.

Helianthemum

canum, Boiss. umbellatum, Mill.

Heracleum

asperum, Bieb. Wallichii, DC.

Heuchera

americana, Linn. bracteata, Ser. cylindrica, Doug/. Drummondi, Hort.

Hieracium

bupleuroides, C. C. Gmcl. cambricum, F.J. Hanb. foliosum, Waldst. et Kit.

gymnocephalum, Griseb.

Hydrangea

vestita, Hall.

6

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

Hydrastis

canadensis, Linn.

Hyoscyarnus

niger, Linn

Hypericum

Androscemum, Linn Ascyron, Linn.

elodeoides, Choisy.

erectum, Thunb.

hirsutum, Linn.

rhodopeum, Friv.

tetrapterum, Fries.

Hypochoeris

radicata, Linn.

Iberis

sempervirens, Linn

Ilex

Aquifolium, Linn.

Iris

Guldenstaedtiana, Leper A. longipetala, Herb.

sibirica, Linn.

I satis

tinctoria, Linn

Jasione

montana, Linn.

Jurinea

glycacantha, DC.

Kniphofia

Tuckii, Baker.

Laburnum

alpinum,y. S. PresL

var. roseum.

vulgare,/". S. Presl, var. foliis

aureis.

Lagurus

ovatus, Linn.

Lathyrus

Clymenum, Linn. macrorrhizus, Wimm maritimus, Bigel. montanus, Bernh. splendens, Kellogg.

Lavatera

trimestris, Linn.

Layia

elegans, Torr. et Gray.

Leontodon

hispidus, Linn.

Leontopodium

alpinum, Cass., var. himalayanum

Leptosyne

Stillmannii, A. Gray.

Leycesteria

formosa, Wall.

Ligusticum

Thomsoni, C. B. Clarke.

Limnanthes

Douglasii, R. Br.

Linaria

maroccana, Hook.f. repens, Mil!.

saxatilis, Hoffmgg. et Link.

triornithophora, Wtlld. vulgaris. Mill.

v

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

7

Linum

capitatum, Kit. usitatissimum, Linn

Lophosciadium

meifolium, DC.

Lotus

siliquosus, Linn

Lupinus

arboreus, Linn. var. violaceus. micranthus, DongL nootkatensis, Donn polyphyllus, Lindl. rivularis, Doug/.

Lychnis

alba, Mill.

Flos-jovis, Desr. montana, S. Wats. Viscaria, Linn.

Malva

sylvestris, Linn.

Matricaria

Tchihatchewii, Hort. Keiv.

Meconopsis

cambrica, Vig.

Wallichii, Hook., var. fusco- purpurea.

Medicago

carstiensis, Wu/f.

Echinus, DC.

falcata, Linn.

hispida, Gaertn., var. apiculata.

lupulina, Linn.

sativa, Linn.

scutellata, AIL

Meum

athamanticum, Jacq.

Mimulus

luteus, Linn.

Molopospermum

cicutarium, DC

Monolepis

trifida, Schrad.

Morasa

iridioides. Linn.

i

Morina

longifolia, Watt.

Muscari

Argsei, Hort. armeniacum, Baker. Maweanum, Baker.

Myrrhis

odorata, Scop.

Nepeta

nuda, Linn. spicata, Benth

Nicotiana

rustica, Linn.

CEnothera

amoena, Lehtn.

Onobrychis

viciaefolia, Scop.

Ononis

arvensis, Linn. alboroseum, Fisch. et Mey

Oxytropis

glabra, DC. lapponica, Gaud.

8

List of Seeds Collected during

1902.

Pseonia

corallina, Retz

Papaver

orientale, Linn.,var. bracteatum. pilosum, Sibt/i. et Sm. rupifragum, Boiss. et Reut. somniferum, Linn,

Pentstemon

barbatus, Roth. confertus, Dougl. diffusus, Dougl.

gentianoides, Foir.

Perezia

multiflora, Less

Phormium

tenax. Linn./.

Phyteuma

orbiculare, Linn. Scheuchzeri, All. Sieberi, Spreng.

Pimpinella

magna, Linn. Saxifraga. Linn

Pisum

sativum, Linn

Platystemon

californicus, Benth.

Polemonium

boreale, Adams. caeruleum, Linn. himalayanum. Baker. mexicanum, Cerv. pauciflorum, S. Wats

Polygonum

baldschuanicum, Regel. Convolvulus, Linn. Weyrichii, F. Schmidt.

Potentilla

ambigua, /acq. andicola, Benth. apennina, Tenore.

argentea, Linn,, var. calabra. bifurca, Linn. chinensis, Ser. chrysantha, Trevir. desertorum, Bunge. Dombeyi, NestL glandulosa, Lindl. Hopwoodiana, Sweet. Macnabiana x , Lent. multifida, Linn.

nepalensis, Hook. nivea, Linn. norvegica, Linn. opaca, Linn.

palustris, Scop.

pensylvanica, Linn. recta, Linn.

rupestris, Linn.

semilaciniata, Hort.

vladnizensis, Siegfr.

Poterium

canadense, A. Gray. diandrum,Zfa?£./

Prenanthes

purpurea, Linn

Primula

Wid.

Balbisii, Leh?n.,sxx. bellunensis. elatior, Hill.

japonica, A. Gray, var. lilacina.

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

9

Primula continued.

mollis, Nutt. officinalis, /acq. sikkimensis, Hook. f.

Pulicaria

vulgaris, Gaertn.

Ramondia

pyrenaica, Rich.

Ranunculus

acris, Linn. brutius, Tenore. Flammula, Linn. lanuginosus, Linn.

ophioglossifolius, Vill. sceleratus, Linn. Thora, Linn.

Raphanus

Raphanistrum, Linn.

Rosa

rugosa, Thunb.

Rumex

maritimus, Linn

Salvia

hians, Royle. pratensis, Linn

Saponaria

ocymoides, Linn.

Saxifraga

Aizoon, Jacq. aretioides, Lapeyr. caesia, Linn. caespitosa, Linn.

Cymbalaria, Linn. decipiens, Ehrh.

var.

Saxifraga continued.

granulata, Linn.

Haworthii, ILort,

Hostii, Tausch.

Huetiana, Boiss.

hypnoides, Linn.

Mertensiana, Bongard.

nivalis, Linn.

pedatifida, Ehrh.

pubescens, Pourr. Rocheliana, Stemb.,

coriophylla. squarrosa, Sieber. umbrosa, Linn., var. serratifolia

{Mackay).

Scabiosa

caucasica, Bieb.

Scorpiurus

muricata, Linn.

Senecio

Doronicum, Linn. Fuchsii, C. C. GtneL

Silene

alpestris, Jacq. caucasica, Boiss. Cucubalus, Wibel.

*

Czerei, Boiss. italica, Pers. maritima, With. nocteolens, Webb et Berth. quadridentata, Pers. rhynchocarpa, Boiss.

Saxifraga, Linn.

stylosa, Bvnge. Thorei, Duf. verecunda, S. Wats. Zawadzkii, Herbich.

Sisyrinchium

angustifolium, J/i//.f var.

mucronatum IMichxX

IO

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

Smyrnium

Olusatrum, Linn,

Solidago

Virgaurea, Linn.

Spiraea

Aruncus, Linn. palmata, Thunb

Stachys

recta, Linn

Stenanthium

angustifolium, Kunth.

Succowia

balearica, Medic,

Symphoricarpus

racemosus, Michx

Synthyris

reniformis, Benth.

Taxus

baccata, Linn

Thalictrum

glaucum, Desf. majus,y#f^. minus, Linn. simplex, Linn.

Thermopsis

fabacea, DC. lanceolata, R. Br,

Tofieldia

calyculata, Wahlenb.

Trifolium

alpinum, Linn. pannonicum, Linn. striatum, Linn.

Trollius

altaicus, Mey

Tunica

prolifera, Scop.

Valeriana

tuberosa, Linn

Veratrum

album, Linn

Veronica

officinalis, Linn.

Vicia

Cracca, Wulf. oroboides, Wulf. Orobus, DC. pyrenaica, Pourr sylvatica, Linn. villosa, Roth.

Viola

cornuta, Linn. hirta, Linn. sylvestris, Lam

Wulfenia

carinthiaca,y^r^

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

1 1

PLANTS UNDER GLASS.

\

Acacia

Farnesiana, Willd. grandis. Henfr. juncifolia, Benth. neriifolia, A. Cunn suaveolens, Willd.

Acanthostachys

strobilacea, Link, Klotzsch et

Otto.

Asclepias

curassavica, Linn

Astrocaryum

mexicanum, Liebm

iEchmea

bromeliaefolia, Baker. var. pulchrum.

Candida, E. Morr. ccerulescens, Baker. Makoyana, Hort. Makoy. Weilbachii, Dietr.,

leodiensis.

xiphophylla, Baker,

Begonia

Dregei, Otto et Dietr. semperflorens, Link et Otto Verschaffeltii x , Regel. Weltoniensis X, Hort.

Bertolonia

maculata, DC.

Billardiera

var

longiflora, LabilL

Agave

attenuata, Salm-Dyck xalapensis, Roezl.

Aglaonema

commutatum, Scholt.

Aloe

mitriformis, Mill., var. spinulosa {Salm-Dyck).

striata, Haw.

Billbergia

pallidiflora, Liebm. thyrsoidea, Mart,, var. longi-

folia. zebrina, Lindl.

Brachychilum

Horsfieldii, Baker.

Brodiaea

lactea, S. I Vats.

Araujia

sericifera, Brot.

Aristolochia

brasiliensis, Mart, et Zua

elegans, Mast. fimbria ta, Cham.

Callicarpa

purpurea, Juss.

Callistemon

linearis, DC. speciosus, D(

Carex

japonica, Thu/a

12

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

Cassia

corymbosa, Lam.

Cedronella

triphylla, Moench.

Chamsedorea

Sartorii, Liebm.

Chlorophytum

Orchidastrum, LindL

Cleome

gigantea, Linn

Clerodendron

splendens, G. Don.

Clianthus

puniceus, Banks et Sol.

Clitoria

Ternatea, Linn

var. alba.

Cobaea

scandens, Cav

Coffea

arabica, Linn. bengalensis, Roxb.

Costus

afer, Ker-Gawl. igtiQus, N. E. Br.

Cros sandra

undulaefolia, Salisb

Cytisus

candicans, Lam.

Desmodium

gyrans, Dt

Didymosperma

porphyrocarpon, H. Wend/, et

Drude,

Dolichos

Lablab, Linn

Drosera

spathulata, Labi//.

Drosophyllum

lusitanicum. Link.

Eccremocarpus

scaber, Ruiz et Pav

Eriostemon

buxifolius, Sni

Erythrochiton

brasiliensis, Nees.

Eucalyptus

ficifolia, F. MuelL incrassata, Labi//.

Eucomis

punctata LHerit.

Eupatoriutn

Weinmannianum, RegeL

Evodia

elegans, Hort

Fuchsia

procumbens, R. Citnn.

Gasteria

disticha, Haw., var. angusti- folia, Baker.

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

>3

Geonoma

pumila, Wendl.

Gerbera

Jamesoni, Bolus.

i

Gloriosa

superba, Linn.

Goodia

lotifolia, Salisb

Gossypium

herbaceum, Lam

Grevlllea

glabrata, Meissn

Guizotia

abyssinica, Cass

Hedychium

Gardnerianum, Rose.

Hibiscus

gossypinus, Thunb. Manihot, Linn. pedunculatus, Linn. Trionum, Lawl. var. major

Humea

elegans, Sun

Hydrolea

spinosa, Linn

Indigofera

atropurpurea, Buch.-Ham australis, IVilld.

Ipomoea

Bona >\, Linn*

Kalanchoe

crenata, Haw. flammea, Stapf. thyrsiflora, Harv. Welwitschii, Britten.

Kennedya

prostrata, R. Br. var. Marryatae

Kunzea

parvifolia, Schau

Lantana

Camara, Linn

Leptospermum

ericoides, A. Rich. scoparium, Forst.

Loasa

latent ia, Gill., var. aurantiaca.

Hort.

Luffa

aegyptiaca, Mill.

Lycopersicum

esculentum, Mill.

Maurandia

Barclayana, LindL

Melothria

cucumerina, Naud.

Mesembryanthemum

cm viflorum, J law. digitiforme, Thunb.

lepidum, Haw. sanguineum, Hort. violaceum, DC.

'4

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

Mimosa

marginata, LindL

Mimulus

longiflorus, Hort

Momordica

Charantia, Linn. cochinchinensis, Spreng.

Moraea

prolongata, Hort

Musschia

Wollastoni, Lowe

Myrica

sethiopica, Linn.

Myrtus

communis, Linn. Luma, Barn. Ugni. Mol

Nephthytis

liberica, N. E. Br.

Nicotiana

sylvestris, Hort.

Ornithogalum

tenellum, /acq

Oryza

latifolia, Des: sativa, Linn.

Oxypetalum

coeruleum, Dcsne

Panicum

Crus-galli, Linn

Passiflora

edulis, Sims. quadrangulariSj Linn

Pelargonium

ternatum, Linn.

Pitcairnia

amaryllidifolia, Hort. latifolia, Soland. maidifolia, Dcsne. pulverulenta, Ruiz et Pav.

Polyalthia

suberosa. Benth. et Hook. f.

Primula

japonica, A. Gray, var. lilacina. mollis, Nutt.

verticillata, Forsk.

Prostanthera

lasianthos, Labitl.

Rhodochiton

volubile, Zucc.

Rhododendron

Nuttallii, Booth

Rhynchosia

caribsea, DC.

Rivina

humilis. Linn.

Ruellia

tuberosa, Linn

List of Seeds Collected during 1902.

15

Sabal

Blackburniana, G/azebr.

Saxifraga

Cotyledon, Zz;///., var. pyrami

dalis. Macnabiana, Hort.

Schismatoglottis

Roebelini, Hort.

Sempervivum

annuum, C. Sm tectorum, Linn.

Solatium

auriculatum, Ait. coagulans, Hort.

fastigiatum, Willd. hybridum, J acq.

jasminoides, Paxt. nigrum, Linn.

pyracanthum, /acq. Seaforthianum, Andr.

Stachytarpheta

indica, Vahl.

Tacsonia

exoniensis x , Hort. mollissima, H.B.K. Van, Volxemii, Hook.

Tacca

cristata, Jack.

Tecoma

Smith ii, Hort.

Tetranema

mexicana, Benth

Thrinax

parviflora, Sw.

Tillandsia

aurea, Hort. corallina, K. Koch. splendens, Brong.

Trachelium

coeruleum, Linn

Tristania

laurina, R. Br.

Villamilla

purpurascens. Hort.

Vitis

heterophylla, T/iimb., var. humulifolia.

*

I

u

L

_

VT/-r-

I^^^H

"

■^■^H _*****»

History of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.

PRINCIPAL GARDENERS

Of the chiefs of the Garden-staff of the Royal Botanic Garden in its earliest years we have at present no record. Search through documents relating to the period may bring to light some information regarding them, but search of the kind demands

able to claim. From the year 1764, in

am

John Hop

time recognised as claiming the direct financial support of the Crown, we have a record which, imperfect though it be, enables us to draw up the following list of the names of men who have held the position of head of the Garden-staff here :

John Williamson, Malcolm M'Coig, Robert Menzies, John Mackay, George Don, Thomas Sommerville, William Macnab, James Macnab, John Sadler, Robert Lindsay,

Principal Gardener, 1756(F)- 1780.

Principal Gardener, 1782- 1789.

Principal Gardener, 1789-1 799(?)

Principal Gardener, 1800-1802.

Principal Gardener, 1 802-1 806 (?)

Principal Gardener, i8o6(?)-i8io.

Principal Gardener, 1 8 10- 1848.

Principal Gardener, 1849- 1878.

Curator, Curator,

Adam Dewar Richardson, Head Gardener, Robert Lewis Harrow, Head Gardener,

1 879- 1 882, 1 883- 1 896. 1 896- 1 902. 1902.

I may say a word in explanation of the variation in title given to the chief of the Garden-staff in the foregoing table. All the earlier chiefs of the Garden-staff had the official designation, Principal Gardener. At the end of the eighteenth century it had

[Notes, R.B.G., Edin., No. XII., 1904- 1

B

1 8 History of the Royal Botanic Garden.

become usual on the part of the public to speak of this official as Superintendent, and in newspaper references this term is commonly made use of, although all official documents refer to the Gardener or Principal Gardener. This continued up to the appointment of William Macnab in 1810. James Macnab received no official appointment from the Crown ; he was appointed verbally by the Regius Keeper of the day to succeed his father, an appointment confirmed subsequently by the Crown when in time the fact of the succession became known to it. James Macnab was spoken of by the public as Super- intendent, but in his later years the newer title of Curator became the customary one. On James Macnab's death John Sadler was recommended for the post of Curator, and the Crown accepting without question the designation made the appoint- ment, and the title was continued to his successor. On the retirement of Robert Lindsay the old designation of Gardener was reverted to.

John Williamson.

»

He was Principal Gardener during the period in which the Royal Botanic Garden was established in Leith Walk, taking the place of the pre-existing gardens at Holyrood and at the east end of the North Loch. We have little knowledge of him beyond what is recorded on a memorial tablet in the Garden which bears :

To the memory of | John Williamson, | who during twenty- five years of faithfull service j as Principal Gardener in this place, was no less | respected for the good qualities suited to his I station in life, than esteemed for eminent skill in | his profession, this monument is erected by j John Hope: PB :

1 781. j Removed from the Botanic Garden, | Leith Walk, | 2nd September, 1823.

The words " this place " on the tablet are, in the strict sense,

Walk

in 1764. and Will

Principal Gardener must have been appointed by Professor Alston— say in 1756. We may assume, however, from their use that the Royal Garden and the Town's Garden prior to their

Principal Gardeners John Williamson. 19

combination had under the Regius Keeper and Professor one Principal Gardener, who was John Williamson.

The laying-out of the new Garden in Leith Walk was a matter of supreme interest to Professor Hope, and in John Williamson he had apparently an efficient coadjutor. Hugo Arnot,1 describing the Garden in 1779, speaks of its development, and says "this rapid progress of the Garden was much owing to the skill and diligence of John Williamson, the Principal Gardener."

Of John Williamson's sympathetic collaboration in scientific work in the Garden there is evidence in a manuscript book marked, "A narrative of experiments made on trees in the Botanic Garden/' which is amongst the books and papers of Professor Hope bequeathed to the Garden by the late John Hope, W.S. In this book there is an account of five experi- ments carried out in the year 1769. The subjects of invests gation were the movement of the sap, the polarity of the branches, the growth of the wood in the stem, and the relation of the parts of the flower to the ripening of the seed. Exami- nation of the records in the book lead to the conclusion that the daily observations and notes were made by John Williamson under the direction of Professor Hope. The outcome of the experiments is nowhere recorded, but the experiments them- selves are of interest as giving us some idea of problems of plant-life that attracted attention in the eighteenth century, and they testify to the diligence and enthusiasm of John Williamson.

John Williamson died2 in 1780 and was buried on 24th September of that year in St. Cuthbert's Burying Ground.3 He left two sons, who lived in 8 Church Street, Edinburgh, one,

*Hugo Arnot, "The History of Edinburgh," 1779, p. 418, Footnote.

- The friendly intervention of the late Mr. John Hope, W.S., brought me into relation with Mr. Andrew F. Kedslie, 12 St. Vincent Street, Edinburgh, and through his kindness I have learned from his aunt, Mrs. Agnes Armand, great-granddaughter of John Williamson, that she has some recollection of being told by her mother that John Williamson was shot at and killed in Leith Walk. To the same source I am indebted for the information in the text regarding John Williamson's family.

3 "John Williamson from the Botanest Gardens a turf.'' Register of St. Cuthbert* Burying Ground, September ; ///, 1780.

20 History

Samuel, who was educated by Professor Hope and became a doctor in the Indian service ; the other, James, was blind. He also had a daughter, Nancy, who married the well-known Dr. Andrew Fyfe, Lecturer on Anatomy. l

The successor to Williamson apparently was not appointed at once for I find in the Pipe Roll2 a record of payment of two guineas " to Mr. Knox for superintending the Garden after Mr. William- son's death," and in the same Pipe Roll u John Bell, gardener," is credited with disbursements for the Garden, these being "wages and petty expenses," the amount of which, ^109 17s. 8d., shows that he was acting as paymaster for some little time. John Bell does not seem to have been appointed Principal Gardener, and was perhaps the senior working gardener in the Garden acting at first under the direction of Mr. Knox, and subsequently taking independent charge. Whether a Mr. Richmond, who, according to the same Pipe Roll, received a sum of £2 3s. at this time for what service is not stated was also a temporary superintendent, perhaps following Mr. Knox, there is at present no means of deciding, but the position of his name in the Pipe Roll, and the amount and statement of the payment he received, make the conjecture that he so acted a legitimate one.

Malcolm M'Coig.

J

Malcolm M

this position until his death on the 25th February 1789. He therefore survived Professor Hope, who died in 1787, and he was Principal Gardener when Professor Rutherford became

Keeper. Regarding M'Coig we have no further informa-

tion as yet, but that he was a man of some vigour, and of better education than John Williamson, is shown by papers

g our Hope MSS. assigned to his authorship by Professor

Hope, in which I laying-out of the Garden.

-v _^

1 " Last night was married Mr. Andrew Fyfe of this place to Nancy Williamson." Caledonian Mercury, October 20th, 1787.

» Pipe Roll— "The declaration of the accounts of Doctor John Hope, Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh, of the money received and paid by hiin on account of the Botanic Garden there from nth March 1769 to 1st January 1782."

Principal Gardeners Rout. Menzies, John Mackay. 21

Robert Menzies.

On M'Coig's death Robert Menzies was appointed his successor. Of him we can tell little. He was probably a native of Weem in Perthshire, and was elder brother of Archibald Menzies, a distinguished botanist and traveller, who, as a young man, was also employed in the Botanic Garden, and apparently under his brother.1 The Pipe Roll for the later years of the eighteenth century is missing from the series, and therefore I am not able to determine the exact date of the death of Menzies, but from a statement by Dr. Neill2 we know that his successor in the Garden was appointed in February 1800.

John Mackay.

The successor of Robert Menzies was John Mackay, brother of James Townsend Mackay, the distinguished botanist whose name will always be associated with the investigation of the flora of Ireland. John Mackay's name is familiar to British botanists, for it occurs frequently in the pages of British floras, but we depend for our knowledge of the incidents of his career upon the following memoir, from the pen of Dr. Neill, which appeared in the "Scots Magazine " for